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Causative Form, Active and Passive


Causative Form, Active and Passive
In English, the causative form is used when we don't do someting ourselves, instead we arrange for someone else to do it for us.
There are two kinds of causative structure:
Active Causative
Passive Causative

A. Active Causative
Verbs that take active forms of causative are Let, Make, Have, and Get

Let
Let is used when we want to allow someone to do something.
Pattern
let        agent   verb

Example: She lets me borrow her book.
explanation:
            let        agent   verb    
She      lets      me       borrow               her book.

Make
Make is used when we want to force someone to do something.
Pattern
make   agent   verb

Example: My mother makes me do my home work.
explanation:
                        make   agent   verb    
My mother      makes  me       do        my homework.

Have
Have is used when we want to give someone the responsbility to do something.
Pattern
have    agent   verb

Example: My English teacher has me do the homework in a week.
explanation:
                                have/has     agent         verb      
My English teacher    has             me             do                         the home work in a week.

Get
Get is used when we want to convince to do something or to trick someone into doing something.
Pattern
get       agent   to         verb

Example: My friends get me to take the test.
explanation:
                        get     agent     to         verb    
My friends      get       me       to         take     the quiz.

Get vs. Have
Sometimes "get someone to do something" is interchangeable with "have someone do something," but these expressions do not mean exactly the same thing.
Examples:
My friends get me to take the test.
It can be meant that I am actually not encouraged to take the test, but my friends convince me to take that.
My friends have me take the test.
It means that my friends ask me to take the quiz.

B. Passive Causative
There are two verbs generally used in the passive causative form; they are Have and Get. In addition, there is usually no agent in this form; it's not like in active form which has the agent. The action verb is in the past participle, and the object comes before it. The difference between have and get in this passive causative form is the same like in active causative form explained aboved.
Pattern
Subject           Have/Get        Object Past Participle
Examples:
I ask someone to fix my car.
= I have my car fixed.
She asked John to wash the plate.
= She got the plate washed.
Exception
But, if the verb get followed by personal nouns, past participle can't be used in it. Instead, we must use to infinitive. So it will become just like in active causative form.
Pattern
Subject           Get      Object (personal noun)        to         verb
I get the house painted
I get John to paint the house.
In addition, modal auxiliary verbs may be used with the causative sentence structure. Most often, modals express a suggestion by the speaker, such as:
You should have your hair cut.
He should get his decision changed
She will have the food cooked.
Need & Want
Need and want may be used in passive causative sentences. In some cases, the passive causative verb (had/got) may be dropped altogether.??
I need/want to have my hair cut.
I need/want my hair cut.

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